The diets that need a reality check – Perth Now

HUMANS are hardwired for gimmicks. From clean eating to coconut yoghurt to spirulina (did we mention clean eating?) we are bombarded with a host of health trends promising to make us feel better, our waistline trimmer, or live longer.

But are these trends worth the fuss?


Granted, it does have three times more protein than red meat and is a plant source of vitamin B12 (bonus for vegans), a typical serving size of this blue-green algae extract is only 3g — a tiny amount that won’t contribute greatly to your nutrient intake.

Additionally, some would question whether the B12 found in spirulina can interfere with the absorption of the active form of this vitamin, so the result of sprinkling this powder into your smoothies may ultimately make your B12 levels worse.

Verdict: For $20 or more per 100g packet, surely you would be better off buying other plant sources of protein, like nuts, legumes and whole grains, which have more protein (and vitamins and minerals) in smaller quantities of food that won’t send you broke.

media_cameraA bowl of green looks healthy for breakfast, but is it really as good for you as it looks?


Thanks to social media, coconuts are in and dairy is out. But unless you have a medically diagnosed lactose intolerance, there is no real advantage to eating coconut-based products instead.

Just like coconut cream and milk, coconut yoghurt is high in saturated fat. Compared to natural or Greek yoghurt, it also has very little bone-strengthening calcium and is low in protein — which is what you want for a satisfying snack.

Verdict: With triple the amount of saturated fat (compared to full fat dairy) and minimal protein and calcium, coconut yoghurt is not as healthy as it seems. Ensure portion control and limit servings.


These tiny seeds (like no other seed) provide a useful amount of iron, magnesium and calcium, and are a rich source of omega-3 fats, important for heart health and brain function (although there’s question as to whether the omega-3 in chia are readily used by the body compared to that found in fish).

The outstanding fibre content is higher than that of flaxseeds (linseed) or sesame seeds which can help lower cholesterol, control blood sugar and insulin levels and suppress the appetite to promote weight loss.

What’s more, their neutral flavour means they won’t alter the taste, making them a perfect addition to just about any foods like yoghurt, muesli or homemade muffins for an added nutrition boost.

media_cameraChia seeds are actually pretty great.

Verdict: for such a small serving, chia has impressive nutrition credentials so worth the hype (and expensive price tag).


Clean Eating (with its equally popular social-media moniker #eatclean) is an ubiquitous phrase returning over 34 million results on Instagram. But does anyone know what this actually means? No.

Should you be concerned that your hashtag-free food is actually dirty or “unclean”? The reality is that while ‘eating clean’ may sound like something we should be aiming for, it’s a concept devoid of any scientific meaning.

To “eat clean” also assumes a one-size-fits-all approach to nutrition and add too much focus on what people shouldn’t be eating (as with any fad diet) — an implication of which can create an unhealthy relationship with food.

Verdict: While there’s nothing wrong with striving to eat healthy (whether that includes “sugar free”, “wheat free”, “dairy free”, “gluten free”, “fructose free”, or “grain free”), the problem is when it’s taken too far, can lead to a more clinical problem, such as an eating disorders or anxiety.

Kathleen Alleaume is a nutritionist and founder of The Right Balance.

Originally published as The diets that need a reality check

Here’s a Quick Guide To Natural Wrinkle Reduction Methods That Work

If you are looking for natural wrinkle reduction methods then you are going to love this article. I am going to reveal to you my favorite ways to naturally look younger.

To improve the health of my skin i simply maintain a diet of certain foods. There are certain foods that have proven to have the ability to keep your skin looking healthy and younger.

My favorite among these are:

  1. Salmon and tuna – These are also rich in omega 3 fatty acids which are essential to for good skin health.
  2. Strawberries,raspberries,blueberries and cranberries
  3. Oranges
  4. Plum
  5. Pineapple
  6. Vegatables like,spinach,kale and carrots
  7. Tea
  8. Grapefruit
  9. Cherries
  10. Red Cabbage
  11. Sweet Potatoes
  12. Dark Chocolate

So what is it exactly that makes the above foods effective antiwrinkle remedies? It’s because they are rich in antioxidants.

One of the main cuases of aging is the oxidation of cells by free radicals. Antioxidants prevent free radicals from damaging your skin cells ,thus preventing skin disorders like brown age spots and other physical signs of aging-skin.

Another very powerful antioxidant that is not so common or known is a natural substance called Phytessence Wakame.This substance is harvested in the Japanese Sea and is sourced from the algae found there.

The Japanese love Phytessence Wakame for its ability to keep skin looking youthful and also because it helps heal irritated and dry skin. It is eaten both dry and fresh.

The magic behind Phytessence Wakame is that it inhibits an enzyme called hyaluronidase from breaking down hyaluronic acid. This acid , together with collagen and elastin are responsible for keeping skin firm, smooth and elastic. So by preventing this enzyme from destroying hyaluronic acid , it actually helps reduce wrinkles.

Sharia Compliant Investments Providing Consistent Annual Double Digit Returns for 10 – 20 – 30 Year in Extremely Low Risk Investments

Sharia-Compliant Fund Providing Extremely Low Risk Investments and Consistent Annual Double Digit returns for 10 – 20 – 30 Years!

Cabal Capital Management, LLC announces the launch of the Legacy Fund which provides special alternative investment opportunities into extremely low risk, and very high financial return Advanced High Income Generation Projects through direct investments.

This fund which is not a private equity fund and is Sharia-Compliant is unlike all other investment pool funds, hedge funds, etc. that exist today by offering investments that are focused on both strategic and tactical investment opportunities into Highly Advanced Income Generating Project(s) producing crucial and vital, very high demand commercially valued product(s) that are being sold directly into the largest “Major” Consumer Universal Demand Markets in the world.  These investments allow risk adverse accredited investors the ability to participate in the revenues generated from these projects which allows for and achieves both capital growth and preservation, while providing the investor an extremely low risk opportunity with the benefit of dependable and sustainable alpha generation and the long term growth from these projects.  These fully integrated projects have been designed to last 40 to 50 years or longer for their life cycles regardless of the global financial and credit markets.

Our fund is well positioned to effectively tap into these markets to the benefits of our investors.  The growth dynamics of the United States and Western Europe is based upon local, regional and domestic consumption of all the products these projects produce.  This fund is targeting routine and consistent annual double digit returns (15 – 21%) to investors un-correlated to all securities, commodities, currencies and the credit markets themselves since there will not be any exposure to these markets.  All project investments within this special investment vehicle have been specifically developed and designed to perform across various business cycles regardless of global economic conditions to include recessionary and depressionary environments as well.

The current global credit crisis, current stock market contractions and wild swings in the commodities markets does not and will not impact our ability to produce consistent annual double digit returns now or in the future for our investors since we will never have, need or rely on the credit markets to establish margin accounts or leveraged positions which most all hedge fund type investment vehicles require to operate.  We do not require nor will we ever utilize prime services which the large investment banks provide (Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, etc.). We do not rely on the stock, commodity or currency exchanges to generate income since we can not control any of the events occurring in those exchanges for our investors, thus we are totally un-correlated to all securities, commodities, currencies and credit markets

In the case of Deflationary and Inflationary Markets, they will have no real effect on these projects and the products they produce.  Coincidentally inflation will only increase the value of the products coming out of the projects. Deflationary markets will have very minimal impact on the products produced within these projects since these products are and always will be vital for any country to maintain a stable economy, thus they will always be in very high demand through out the world regardless of the global economic conditions. 

Risk issues are always addressed through risk management and the review procedures for each and every investment made.  Unlike most projects which have been developed, planned and master planned, every assumption for each project invested in has been tested, validated, verified and proven or it’s not incorporated into these project(s).  Each and every project is also backed up by a detailed Input / Output Financial Cash Model which is a detailed Program / Project Financial Blueprint that shows the quarterly inter-relationships of investments, operational production revenues, operational expenses at all levels, taxes, imposts and fees, special circumstances events, and financial obligations during the life of the Program / Project.

Since energy production and consumption is the key element to any industrialized country, and with energy consumption increasing globally at an annual rate of 5 – 6 %, energy is and always will be vital to both the U.S. and Western European Economies. Allocating to Energy and Bio-Fuels production are two major key areas of involvement and investments within our seven pronged program investment strategies approach, which consists of the following options available to us:  Energy:  Oil & Gas (Example Project to follow), Bio Fuels:  Algae Based Bio-Diesel and Jatropha Curcas {plant} direct fuel source.  Algae Based Bio-Diesel is a direct fuel source currently available and ready for full scale production and delivery {This is Direct Fuel Source and is not a blend for gasoline or other fuel sources!} Algae Based Bio-Diesel Fuel production utilizes proprietary photo enhanced, micro nutrient enhanced, continuous flow, automated, sensor quality controlled, bio-chemical industrial processes and then are pressed, centrifuged, oils separated from water, water treated, cooked, cracked and treated all within a 12 hour cycle (Start to Finish) to complete one batch made ready for use in any diesel engine.  Initially 270 Million Gallons per quarter to several Billion Gallons of bio-diesel per quarter will be produced depending upon the initial size of a project program.  This Algae Based Bio-Diesel Fuel source has a Cetane Rating of 105 -117 compared to 80 – 85 Cetane Rating for #1 diesel fuel currently produced by all the major oil companies, which provides more power, better millage and performance while emitting 60 – 70% less emissions across the board vs. normal standard crude oil based diesel fuels. This Algae Based Bio-Diesel product emits no sulfur and or nitrogen into the atmosphere, Alternative Energy:  Solar / Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Production, Wind and Electric Fuel Cell Systems, Natural Resources:  Gold, Platinum and other Precious Metals Groups and Diamond Mining: Refining, Assaying, Separation using advanced physical technologies and Bullion production of Gold and Platinum as well as Processing, Cutting, Valuation Appraisals of Diamonds and other Precious Stones, Water:  Proprietary Water Science / Technology to Produce Fresh Drinking Water to meet Agricultural, Industrial and Human Public Health needs in critically water short areas through Water production, bottling facilities and distribution.  This can be accomplished with any available water supply {in ground water tables, above and below ground reservoirs with a high saline content normally not recommended for human consumption}, Sea Waters & Brackish Waters anywhere Globally, Hydroponics:  Food Production: Fish Shrimp, Prawns, Fruits Vegetables utilizing USDA inspectors to garner Grade A Choice Status to include direct marketing into Major U.S.A. and International Consumer Demand Markets, and Special Opportunities: Aviation Fuels: JP-1 to JP-12 for Commercial and Military Applications from Algae Based Direct Fuel Sources as well as Advanced Hyper-Speed Information Technologies and other Advanced High Income Generation Project Opportunities as they become available.

It should be noted that traditional large project investments consist normally of only one income generation production element and typically requires three years at the earliest before the investors see any type of modest return on their investment.  Our projects produce immediate results in the first year due to their very nature and global demand.  These Exclusive World Class Projects which are available to us for investments have no less than 2, but normally include 5 or more Major Integrated Income Production Elements within each project.  It should also be noted that each income producing element within these projects are so strong that they could stand on their own and support the entire project, which is why many of these elements are developed together to form an Advanced Integrated Income Generation Project depending upon the requirements and location of the program.

All of the projects that this special opportunity fund invests in involve Proprietary Advanced Technologies and Advanced Physical Science / Processes (not known to the great majority of Asset Manager Companies Staffs).   Other types of investment pool managers, hedge funds, etc. do not know or even have access to these world class development engineering people and the technologies assets and projects that they develop, implement and manage.  Currently we have in excess of $10 Billion Dollars worth of Advanced High Income Generation Projects available to us for investments.

These projects are developed, implemented and managed by Highly Reliable, Senior Internationally Experienced Technical Managers, Senior Science Managers and Senior Logistics / Project Security Management Staff.  There are in excess of 300 Top Level Executive Technical Managers with over 30 years of Experience in each of their perspective Development Sectors available for all projects that our fund invests in.  These projects are designed to insure extreme depth of expertise and experience management which is available to any project at any and every stage of the project program, regardless of location of the project anywhere globally.

We understand that most  Investors, Sovereign Wealth Funds, Major International Banks, Hedge Funds, Fund of Funds, Private Equity Funds and others do not have the technical resources, capability, background and or understanding to evaluate, determine and differentiate between good and bad Large Advanced High Income Generation Projects, Project Developers, Project Implementation Capability and Management of Highly Integrated Multiple Income Steam Revenue Generation Projects. 

This is the strength of the Asset Manager and where he excels; during the past several years  he has been mentored, tutored and trained by some of the oldest and most highly respected, responsible, highly sought after and experienced Development Engineers who have planned, master planned, developed, managed, evaluated and trouble shot Economic Development Projects, Strong Multiple Stream Income Generation Projects, conducted Nation Building and Humanitarian Projects in over 65 countries during the past 40 years.  The training he has received allows him to thoroughly review, comprehend and evaluate Project Development, Project Implementation, Logistics, Security and Management of these projects as well as the risk management associated with each potential investment.  This process has provided him with the understanding, knowledge and insights of Project Development, Implementation, Logistics Operations and Infrastructure development of large income generation projects to determine unequivocally, which Highly Advanced Income Production Projects are viable and which ones are questionable investments at best.

Another Special Note of consideration is that each investment will bring with it potential tax advantages not typically found with other types of investments.  Depending on where the project(s) are located and how the project are legally structured and set up (Development Corporations, Development Authorities, etc. which are authorized by local, state or federal governments) could result in tremendous tax advantages, which each investors tax advisor will need to qualify and determine the best approach for each investors own tax liabilities depending upon their current tax status, situation and strategies.

The results of this Special Investment Vehicle fund are highly advantageous investment opportunities that by far exceed the majority of investment opportunities available to investors from a financial return as well as extremely low risk standpoint by investing in Outstanding Advanced High Income Generation Projects carried out by highly reliable and responsible individuals and organizations.

Face to face meetings are welcomed and encouraged in order to qualify, verify and validate these investment opportunities which stem from the Americana way of project development and implementation with the application of Science, Engineering, Logistics, Security and Management which dates back to over 200 Years during the American Expansion of the United States of America.  Never before in the history of mankind has the shear number and sizes of these Consumer Universal Demand Markets been in place and more importantly, primed and ready to handle and accept these vital, crucial and very high demand, commercially valued products coming from these projects.

Headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, Cabal Capital Management, L.L.C. is managed by Kent Sullivan:  www.cabalcapitalmanagement.com

** Fully Integrated Dual Element – Oil & Gas / Real Example Project **

This Oil & Gas production program is headed up by a Top Level Senior International Consultant who is an Oil and Gas Industry Executive which has been involved in the Oil & Gas Industry over the past 50 years.  This Oil & Gas Executive is the Systems Developer, Scientist, Equipment Designer and Engineer who is recognized as an expert in his field by the U.S. Department of Energy who also has called him upon him frequently in the past to trouble shoot particular Oil and Gas fields as a technical advisor and as a trouble shooter to rectify any and all problems associated with troubled oil and gas production fields.

This Top Senior International Consultant has a proprietary and proven 12 step methodology for siting, drilling, completing and production techniques for all wells.  He has a historical commercial success rate of 92% for bringing in all of his wells sited, drilled, completed and producing which also has a normal life span of 15 to 20 plus year’s worth of production.

This Advanced High Income Generation Oil and Gas project is comprised of the following:  A Top Down Electric Air Hammer System which is highly sensorized with Professional Engineers and Scientists managing all operational positions.  These auto sensor rigs provide detailed information by satellite to a centralized operations and training center where all decisions are made by people with 45 – 50 years of successful completion and production experience.

Each oil and gas well completed will be drilled in both soft and hard rock beds and will vary in depths from 3,000 feet to over 13,000 feet.  All wells in this program will be completed initially in the state of Texas, in the United States of America.

Typical production wells will produce 60 barrels of oil per day to 500 – 600 barrels of oil per day and the gas wells will produce in a typical range of 2 million cubic feet of natural gas per day to in excess of 20 million cubic feet of natural gas per day. The total net operating investment will be returned within 4 months of production for each well.

Multiple producing formations will be completed and isolated with proprietary tools and instruments which will be operated simultaneously through out the life of the wells.  The typical life of these well are 15 – 20 years because of the 12 different proprietary methods used for siting, drilling, completion and production techniques, tools, proprietary materials and instruments used on each and every well which prevents formation damage and increases the life cycle of each well to maximize the highest production obtainable.

This program consists of hundreds of oil and gas wells sited, drilled, completed and in production within a 1 – 2 year period.  These wells will be sited, drilled and completed in historically very well known and documented oil and gas producing formations within the state of Texas, in the United States of America.

Investors will receive an estimated 15 – 21% annual return per year on their investment, with payments coming at the end of each year from this program.  The threshold investment will be an aggregate amount of $400 hundred million dollars which is what the minimum program investment calls for.  A $10 Million dollar minimum investment is the entry point for this program, with all others being on a case by case basis.

Estimated program revenues are based on $60 dollars a barrel and $6.5 dollars per thousand cubic foot of natural gas.  Over the last year crude oil (West Texas Intermediate) has sold as low as $50 dollars a barrel up to as much as $147 dollars a barrel.  Over the past year natural gas has sold from $5.5 dollars a thousand cubic foot to $11.3 dollars per thousand cubic foot.

Example Oil & Gas Well Profile:  One well; properly sited, drilled, completed and producing will conservatively produce 100 barrels of oil per day and 4 million cubic foot of natural gas per day.  This provides the overall program (100 barrels x $60 per barrel = $6,000) $6,000 dollars per day of revenue.  Each 4,000 cubic foot of natural gas (4,000 x $6.5 per thousand cubic foot = $26,000) $26,000 dollars per day of revenue.  Total revenue for this example is estimated at $32,000 dollars per day of program revenue for this example.

** All wells in this program will not produce the same **

Each month this represents a program return of (30 days x $32,000 = $960,000) $960,000 dollars of revenue coming from this one (1) example well.  The investment program we are offering involve several hundreds of program wells being sited, drilled, completed and operating within a 1 to 2 year period.

Remember, this is only two elements of a fully integrated Advanced High Income Generation Project which will involve in most cases several other elements (normally 5 or more) to generate very substantial amounts of revenues over the course of the project life.  With the combination of several other Advanced High Income Generation Elements within one project, this will enhance the financial returns and revenues of the program itself, and thus will also greatly reduce and virtually eliminate any associated risk due to the diversification of the different Major Income Generation elements within each project.

Once again, the result of this Special Investment Vehicle fund are highly advantageous investment opportunities that by far exceed the majority of investment opportunities from a financial return and an extremely low risk standpoint by investing in Outstanding Advanced High Income Generation Projects.

Headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, Cabal Capital Management, L.L.C. is managed by Kent Sullivan: www.cabalcapitalmanagement.com

Bioethanol the Green Fuel that Powers Green Cars from Saab and Koenigsegg

With fossil fuel stocks in rapid decline and scientist around the world arguing the case for global warming, caused by increased CO2 emissions, the race is on to find both a greener and cheaper alternative to petrol. Bioethanol fuel may be one such possible contender, which is why both the mainstream car manufacturer Saab and the super car producer Koenigsegg now offer vehicles that can run on bioethanol.

Normal ethanol can be easily derived from petrol, however because bioethanol fuel is derived from plants it is viewed as a green fuel. The energy from the sun is used by the plants to make sugar, which in turn is converted into bioethanol. In addition during the growing process the plant is also absorbing high levels of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, making the whole process greener than the refinement of conventional fossil fuels.

The bioethanol is produced firstly by the action of enzymes and microorganisms on the crops to release the starch and sugars, and then by a process of distilling and dehydration to produce a product that can be used as fuel in the internal combustion car engine. The added benefit of bioethanol is that it has a higher octane rating than standard fuel, 104 as against 97, and so using bioethanol will offer increased performance.

Sadly you cannot put bioethanol into a standard petrol combustion engine without first making some modifications. The engine management system needs to be upgraded, so that the engine can determine which fuel it is running on, and secondly the engine internal components need to be toughened up, because ethanol can react with certain materials to form corrosive acids.

Despite the changes required Saab now offers one of its most popular turbo charged models with a duel fuel option. It can run on either petrol or bioethanol and costs only a fraction more than the standard model, and from its car headlight bulbs through to its alloy wheels you would be hard pressed to spot the difference. Meanwhile Koenigsegg offer their CCX super car with a bioethanol option that can produce over 100bhp more than the petrol version.

Bioethanol does have its detractors, with environmentalists worried that as the demand for bioethanol grows, more land normally used for growing food stocks will be converted over to fuel production. One study has argued that to convert the whole of the US to bioethanol would take up three quarters of all of the world’s arable land.

Whilst Bioethanol certainly has green credentials it is not viable as a fuel for the masses in its current state, due to the huge land resources required. However there are now second generation biofuels derived from waste stocks and third generation biofuels derived from algae. Algae biofuels produce 30 times more energy per acre than biofuel crops, and so could ultimately be part of the future of green energy production.

Sump Systems – The Titans of Filtration

Diving Deep – Advanced Aquarium Discussion

Sump Systems – The Titans of Filtration

Volume I – What are sumps & what benefits do they provide?

What is a sump, and how does it work?

A sump is essentially a container that is lower than, and which receives drainage from the aquarium. This is done in a continuous cycle, where the aquarium constantly overfills so that it is forced to drain through the drain pipe down into the sump, and is then pumped back up to the aquarium thus starting the cycle over again. (See Diagram Below)
Sump Diagram

What benefits come with sump filtration?

A sump is much more than just a container of water below the aquarium, and having a sump system has some great benefits:

Increased Water Volume

Increasing the water volume of your aquarium by adding a sump is a great way to make your system more stable. For example, if you were to accidently add too much food to your twenty gallon aquarium, it would have less negative impact on the aquarium if you had a sump containing an extra five gallons of water; diluting it by roughly 20%. Even the amount of waste your fish produce becomes diluted by the extra water in the system.

Maintaining a Stable Water Level

As water evaporates from a typical aquarium setup, the level of water in the aquarium will drop, requiring you to refill the aquarium in order to keep it at roughly the same height. This can leave water marks around glass near the top of the aquarium, which is unsightly and hard to remove.

The water level in an aquarium with a sump system will never fall below the height of the drain pipe, ensuring the aquarium always looks full. Instead, the water level in the sump will change; needing to be topped up. This is usually easier, as the bucket of water will not need to be lifted to the height of the aquarium in order to dump it; it can be dumped directly into the sump. Systems can also be outfitted with automatic top-off systems to replenish evaporated water.

Removing Surface Film

Aquariums often have a thin oily film on the surface of the water; out of reach of your filter’s intake. This film is not very attractive, cuts down on vital gas exchanges, and can actually diminish the amount of light that your aquarium receives from the light fixture. Light is not only important for viewing your fish; it is also vital for plants and corals to survive.

As water rises up and over the edge of the overflow box or drain pipe, the surface is extracted, removing any film and filtering it out. Because this process is continuous, it eliminates the buildup of surface films all together.

Keeps Equipment Out of Sight

A sump will also provide an area to conceal equipment that would otherwise clutter the aquarium. Items like heaters, thermometers, UV sterilizers etc. can be placed in the sump to free up space in and around the aquarium. In most cases, this also makes the equipment easier to access and maintain.

Easier Water Changes

Being closer to the floor, a sump makes adding and removing water from water changes much easier, requiring less lifting. Some sumps can even be plumbed to a building’s drain lines, allowing you to remove water by turning a valve rather then having to siphon it out. Maintaining your aquarium becomes faster and easier.

Excellent Aeration

Aeration of the water allows for gas exchange, replenishing the oxygen in the aquarium. Many filters provide aeration by agitating the surface of the water. Sump filters not only disturb the surface by turning it over, they aerate the water as it tumbles down the drain pipe into the sump. The water is also aerated while it trickles through the wet/dry portion of the filter (if one is used). With three forms of aeration, it is hard to exceed the level of gas exchange that sump filtration provides.

Customization of Filtration

Like most filters, sumps can make use of all three types of filtration: Biological, Mechanical, and Chemical. Unlike most filters, sump filters are highly customizable with plenty of room for additional filter bags/pads or equipment like phosphate reactors and UV sterilizers. If the aquarium were to have an outbreak of algae, a media bag of phosphate remover can easily be placed in the sump to help combat the problem. This can become difficult with other filters that may not have adequate room for their general media, as well as the media you use to fight a specific problem. Sumps also come in many shapes and sizes, and can be custom built for more specific requirements. For example, some saltwater aquariums incorporate refugiums (controlled area where algae and microorganisms can reproduce). Rather then having one hang on the back of the aquarium, the sump can have a chamber built in for this purpose.

Superior Biological Filtration

Sump systems are most widely known for being superior biological filters with use of wet/dry filtration. This is most commonly done by trickling the water through a tower of bio-balls (media made of plastic with great surface area) to establish bacteria that aids in the breakdown of wastes into less harmful chemicals. The beneficial bacteria are aerobic, meaning that they require oxygen in order to survive. Most conventional filters can only host a limited amount of bacteria because of the limited surface area of the media, and oxygen in the water. The trickle system allows for more media and plenty of exposure to air, creating ideal conditions for the bacteria to flourish.

What sump is right for you?

Some may find that they want all the benefits of these filters, but are still not confident they can manage the complicated plumbing. Keep in mind that sump systems may look complex and intimidating, but all these systems still work off the same basic principals.

There are manufacturers that make all-in-one sump systems for those hobbyists who want the benefits without all of the intricate plumbing. These systems are simple, less costly, and still do a much better job then any hang-on type filter. The only potential drawback is that most of these smaller systems are geared towards saltwater aquariums, meaning that if you have a freshwater aquarium, you may end up with a few parts that will not end up using (such as a built in protein skimmer like the one that comes with the Tom Pro Series PS3). If you have an aquarium less then 75 gallons in size, an all-in-one system may be best.

Full blown sumps that are plumbed directly to the aquarium do require some extra planning and labor. If you do not feel that you can handle installing this type of system yourself, your local aquarium specialists will be able to walk you through the steps, or in some cases can be hired to design and install the system for you. Custom systems tend to be larger, more efficient and can be tailored directly to your specific needs. In most situations the aquarium will need to have a drain hole, and return hole drilled into it. This can be avoided if you purchase a pre-drilled or “reef ready” aquarium. For large aquariums, going this route is usually the best choice.

With an understanding of how sumps actually work, and the great benefits they provide over other types of filtration, it is easy to see why they are considered to be the titans of filtration and are most often the filtration of choice for public display aquariums, retail store fish rooms, and dedicated hobbyist aquariums.

What is the Difference Between ‘biodegradable’ and ‘degradable’ Plastics?

Degradation is a process whereby very large molecules are broken into smaller molecules or fragments. Normally, oxygen is incorporated into these molecular fragments. Typically, strong, tough plastic films become weak and brittle as a result of oxidative degradation. This outcome is because the molecules of which the films consist become much smaller. Degradation can be caused by heat, or exposure to UV light and is enhanced by mechanical stress.

Biodegradation is the process by which microorganisms (microbes such as bacteria, fungi or algae) convert materials into biomass, carbon dioxide and water. Biomass is a general term used to refer to the cells of the microorganisms that are using the material as a carbon source to grow on.

“Degradable Plastic: a plastic designed to undergo a significant change in its chemical structure under specific environmental conditions resulting in a loss of some properties that may vary as measured by standard test methods appropriate to the plastic and the application in a period of time that determines its classification.” [ASTM D883-99] – American Society for Testing and Materials.

When degradable plastics break down into smaller molecules, eventually they will be small enough to be consumed by microorganisms and so biodegradation occurs. In essence then, all degradable polymers need to eventually biodegrade and so should be tested for ‘biodegradability’ than just ‘degradability’.

KAYSONS – Environ range of poluymers are biodegradable and meet ASTM D 6400 as well as EN 13432 norms. http://www.kaysons.in

Types of Water Storage Tanks

Not everyone is lucky enough to have a plentiful supply of water all year round. This is why having a water storage tank is so appealing to people. Sometimes you might find yourself in a situation where you need to deal with fires, for instance if you live in California where fires are frequent. Alternatively you might want water to water your garden when there is a drought. Whatever the reasons you have, you will need to research the different types of storage tank to ensure that you buy one that meets your needs and also your budget.

Steel can make an excellent material for water storage tanks as they can come in very large sizes which allows you to store large amounts of water. They will either arrive on your property as a complete unit of it will come in parts that need to be assembled. There are also different types of coatings available so you will need to research this further. If you are into DIY then you will have problems installing a steel water storage tank yourself so you will need to get professionals in instead.

Wood might seem like a very old fashioned material for a storage tank but the fact remains that wood has long been very successful for storing all sorts of liquids for centuries now. Wood is surprisingly long lasting but they need to remain wet otherwise the wood will shrink and cease to be able to hold the water. Again, wood water tanks will come complete or will need to be assembled by professionals.

Fibreglass offers other benefits to the user such as being very light but also very strong. Unlike metal or wood you don’t have to concern yourself with it rusting or rotting so it makes a very good choice if you’re looking for durability. However fibreglass is not a cheap option so be aware of this.

Concrete tanks will have a life span of about 30 to 50 years and can be installed either above or below ground. Because concrete is a very heavy material you will need machinery to lift and position the tank. Unfortunately concrete tanks are also one of the more pricy options.

Luckily there is one great material that is used for water storage tanks that is affordable and that is a polyethylene water storage tank. However they can only hold up to about 50,000 gallons so you may or may not find this to be big enough. They are also portable and lightweight so this might be something that you need. The reason that they are green or black is so that it prevents algae from developing. Because they are also UV resistant, the life span is about 15 years.

As you can see there are many choices for you when choosing a water storage tank and what type you choose will depend greatly on your needs such as where you want it positioned, what size you need and how much money you have to spend.


Another day of no detectable blue-green algae toxins in Auburn, Owasco’s drinking water – Auburn Citizen

It was another day of good news from the Cayuga County Health Department. No blue-green algae toxins were detected in Auburn and Owasco’s treated drinking water from samples collected Wednesday.

The department said it collected additional samples Thursday and plan to have results back Friday. The samples are collected at both the city of Auburn and town of Owasco’s water treatment plants, and then shipped overnight to the Wadsworth Center, the state Department of Health’s laboratory in Albany. There, the lab conducts tests on the samples, with results taking approximately five hours.

The smallest amount of microcystin, the toxin that can be released from harmful algal blooms, that the lab can detect is 0.15 micrograms per liter. Testing on both the raw water coming into the plant and the treated water started last month, after plant operators saw the recognizable paint-like film of blue-green algae floating into the filters.


Blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, is a filmy, paint-like scum that has been dis…

Treated water samples have come back with non-detectable levels to as high as 0.22 micrograms per liter, .08 micrograms per liter below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s health advisory level for young children. Microcystin can cause liver failure, kidney damage and other health problems when consumed, but the levels that have been found in the treated water have been below those of concern.

Eileen O’Connor, director of the health department’s Environmental Health Division, said they will continue to test both treated and raw water samples two to three times per week until no toxins are detected in the raw water.

Gifts of Phosphate Fertilizers and Curses of Idyllic Life Styles

Phosphorus, the eleventh most abundant element in Earth’s crust, exists in three allotropic forms: white, red, and black. The white form of phosphorus is a highly active, waxy solid that catches fire spontaneously when exposed to air. In contrast, red phosphorus is a reddish powder that is relatively inert. It does not catch fire unless exposed to an open flame. Phosphorus always occurs in the form of a phosphate, a compound consisting of phosphorus, oxygen, and at least one more element. By far the most abundant source of phosphorus on Earth is a family of minerals known as the apatites which contain phosphorus, oxygen, calcium, and a halogen. The state of Florida in US is the world’s largest producer of phosphorus and is responsible for about a third of the entire element produced in the world. Phosphorus also occurs in all living organisms, most abundantly in bones, teeth, horn, and similar materials. It is found in all cells, however, in the form of compounds essential to the survival of all life. Like carbon and nitrogen, phosphorus is cycled through the environment. But since it has no common gaseous compounds, the phosphorus cycle occurs entirely within the solid and liquid portions of Earth’s crust.

About 95 percent of all the phosphorus used in industry goes to the production of phosphorus compounds. By far the most important of these is phosphoric acid, which accounts for about 83 percent of all phosphorus use in industry. A minor use is in the manufacture of safety matches. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) typically ranks about number seven among the chemicals most widely produced in the United States. It is converted to a variety of forms, all of which are then used in the manufacture of synthetic fertilizer, accounting for about 85 percent of all the acid produced. Other applications of phosphoric acid include the production of soaps and detergents, water treatment, the cleaning and rust proofing of metals, the manufacture of gasoline additives, and the production of animal feeds.

The extraction of phosphate fertilizers from the island of Nauru is an illustrative case history regarding involvement or role of human element in our study of industrial chemistry or any branch of science. The Republic of Nauru, located in the Pacific Ocean, has an area of 21 km2, yet it is one of the world’s major suppliers of calcium phosphate which provides this small nation a gross national income of about 200 million USD per person per annum. This income provides an opulent life style with all the conveniences of modern living to native Naurans. In addition, they hire servants and maids from Asia and other island countries for work in and around their houses.

However, the down side of this idyllic life style is that there is little incentive for the owners and employers to work or study. Obesity, heart disease and alcohol abuse have suddenly taken them in the clutches. Moreover the long term effects on the environment have also been catastrophic as extraction of the phosphate rock is like large-scale dentistry. The ore is scooped up from between enormous tooth like stalks of coral limestone, some of which are 25m high. These barren pinnacles of lime stone will be all that is left of 80% of the island when the deposits are exhausted. Furthermore, silt run off from the mixing operation has damaged the offshore coral reefs that once provided abundant fishing resources.

At one time, large amounts of phosphoric acid were converted to a compound known as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP that, in turn, was used in the manufacture of synthetic detergents. When STPP is released to the environment, however, it serves as a primary nutrient for algae in bodies of water such as ponds and lakes. As phosphates are a major source of pollution in lakes and streams, and high phosphate levels support over-production of algae and water weeds. However, many of us have misconceptions regarding the source of polluting phosphates, and many homeowners unknowingly contribute to the problem. Lawn and Garden fertilizers often are implicated as the major source of phosphate pollution. However, research clearly demonstrates that with proper application, fertilizer does not pollute. When phosphates are applied to soils, they quickly bind to soil particles, much like a magnet picks up paper clips. Soil-bound phosphates contribute to pollution only when soil erosion occurs. Research studies have found little or no difference in the phosphate content of storm runoff from lawn fertilizers with and without phosphate. The growth of huge algal blooms in the 1970s and 1980s as a result of phosphate discharges eventually led to bans on the use of this compound in detergents. As a consequence, the compound is no longer commercially important.

Problems arise, however, when fertilizer is over-spread or spilled onto hard surfaces like streets, driveways and sidewalks. Here, the phosphate washes with rain through the storm drains into lakes and rivers. Likewise, grass clippings and leaves that fall on hard surfaces release their phosphorous into water sources. Research studies indicate that 80 percent of the phosphorous from urban settings comes from lawn clippings and leaves that end up in street gutters. While a few grass clippings mowed into the street look rather innocent, collectively they have a major impact on our water quality. Using a mulching lawn mower to keep lawn clippings on your lawn is especially useful. Another important source of phosphate pollution comes from soil erosion caused by water or wind. When soil moves, it takes the soil-bound phosphates with it. Construction sites and sparsely vegetated ground also cause erosion.

Keep It Clean and Healthy with Top School Cleaning Supplies

A clean school is a healthier school. In today’s era of widespread infectious diseases, using superior products for school cleaning can make the difference between health and illness for students, teachers and administrators. School cleaning products that are allergen free will help out those with sensitive systems including asthma sufferers and those subject to frequent headaches. Prolonged exposure to harsh school cleaning chemicals can result in serious illness such as cancer and reproductive problems. Environmental friendly products help everyone from the custodian to the families at home. Today’s school buildings can not only look clean, they can be safer for everyone who lives and breathes within their walls.

A great general purpose item for school cleaning is U.S.-made Bio Green Clean. Available in concentrated liquid form, this natural cleaner is 100% plant derived and promises to be fully hypoallergenic. One gallon of Bio Green Clean makes 4-10 gallons of cleaner. It is known for being nontoxic and biodegradable.  Originally formulated for use in aquariums and greenhouses, it has proven its worth for general cleaning where mold and algae prevention are priorities and deep cleaning is a must.

Clean floors are very important in schools. They can be hard to maintain with all the shoes that cross their busy surfaces each day. A product such as Earth Friendly Products’ Floor Kleener will get the job done well without introducing any irritants to the building. It removes dirt, grease and scuff marks, and does not require rinsing to leave behind a dirt-free, polished surface.

For toilets that smell fresh, look crystal clean, and are much more sanitary, janitors can rely on Seventh Generation’s Emerald Cypress & Fir Toilet Bowl Cleaner. It attacks tough stains as well as conventional cleaners. It also deodorizes without the use of dyes, harsh chemicals, or harmful fumes. School cleaning can be green as well as thorough. The right products help protect children and adults from infectious diseases, allergies, and the threat of health problems down the road.

If you want to get more information about green cleaning supplies, we suggest you to visit Jani-King website.