Fishing Industry

Sectors

wild

 marine 

pelagic

 predator 

tuna

billfish

shark

forage

herring

sardine

anchovy

menhaden

 demersal 

cod

flatfish

freshwater

 farmed 

carp

salmon

tilapia

Commercially important finfish fisheries

There are three principal industry sectors:

The commercial sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations of those resources into products for sale. It is also referred to as the “seafood industry”, although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products.

The traditional sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions.

The recreational sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for sale.

Commercial sector

The commercial sector of the fishing industry comprises the following chain:

Commercial fishing and fish farming which produce the fish

Fish processing which produce the fish products

Marketing of the fish products

World production

FAO catch statistics, world catches 1950-2005 in million tonnes.

Main articles: World fish production and Fishing industry by country

Fish are harvested by commercial fishing and aquaculture.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the world harvest in 2005 consisted of 93.3 million tonnes captured by commercial fishing in wild fisheries, plus 48.1 million tonnes produced by fish farms. In addition, 1.3 million tons of aquatic plants (seaweed etc) were captured in wild fisheries and 14.8 million tons were produced by aquaculture.

Following is a table of the 2005 world fishing industry harvest in tonnes by capture and by aquaculture.

Capture

Aquaculture

Total

Fish, crustaceans, molluscs, etc

93,253,346

48,149,792

141,403,138

Aquatic plants

1,305,803

14,789,972

16,095,775

Total

94,559,149

62,939,764

157,498,913

This equates to about 24.4 kilograms a year for the average person on Earth.

Commercial fishing

Double-rigged shrimp trawler hauling in the nets

Main article: Commercial fishing

The top producing countries were, in order, the People’s Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world’s production; China alone accounted for a third of the world’s production.

In the 1990s and 2000s it has become increasingly evident that industrial fishing has severely depleted stocks of certain types of ocean fish, such as cod.

Fish farming

Intensive koi aquaculture facility in Israel

Main articles: Aquaculture, Mariculture, and Fish farm

Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture (the production of kelp/seaweed and other algae); fish farming; shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and the growing of cultured pearls.

Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosed pools, usually for food. Fish species raised by fish farms include carp, salmon, tilapia, catfish and cod. Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.

Fish processing

Tuna under the knife

Main article: Fish processing

Fish processing is the processing of fish delivered by commercial fisheries and fish farms. The larger fish processing companies have their own fishing fleets and independent fisheries. The products of the industry are usually sold wholesale to grocery chains or to intermediaries.

Fish processing can be subdivided into two categories: fish handling (the initial processing of raw fish) and fish products manufacturing. Aspects of fish processing occur on fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, and at fish processing plants.

Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in the filleting and freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to fresh fish retail and catering outlets, and the secondary processing that produces chilled, frozen and canned products for the retail and catering trades.

Fish products

Sea urchin roe.

Main article: Fish products

Fisheries are estimated to currently provide 16% of the world population’s protein. The flesh of many fish are primarily valued as a source of food; there are many edible species of fish. Other marine life taken as food includes shellfish, crustaceans, sea cucumber, jellyfish and roe.

Fish and other marine life are also be used for many other uses: pearls and mother-of-pearl, sharkskin and rayskin. Sea horses, star fish, sea urchins and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails, sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish. Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all manner of products. Isinglass is used for the clarification of wine and beer. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal.

In the industry the term seafood products is often used instead of fish products.

Fish marketing

Fresh seafood laid out on one of several floating barge vendors.

Main article: Fish marketing

Fish markets are marketplace used for the trade in and sale of fish and other seafood. They can be dedicated to wholesale trade between fishermen and fish merchants, or to the sale of seafood to individual consumers, or to both. Retail fish markets, a type of wet market, often sell street food as well.

Most shrimps are sold frozen and are marketed in different categories. The live food fish trade is a global system that links fishing communities with markets.

Traditional sector

Fishing in C Mau, Vietnam.

Main article: Artisan fishing

The traditional fishing industry, or artisan fishing, are terms used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practises, particularly using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc. It does not usually cover the concept of fishing for sport, and might be used when talking about the pressures between large scale modern commercial fishing practises and traditional methods, or when aid programs are targeted specifically at fishing at or near subsistence levels.

Recreational sector

Fly fishing in a river

See also: Recreational fishing

The recreational fishing industry consists of enterprises such as the manufacture and retailing of fishing tackle and apparel, the payment of license fees to regulatory authorities, fishing books and magazines, the design and building of recreational fishing boats, and the provision of accommodation, fishing boats for charter, and guided fishing adventures.

References

^ FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May 2008.

^ Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate Policy brief of the FAO for the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen, December 2009.

^ The wording of the following definitions of the fishing industry are based on those used by the Australian government

^ a b FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture

^ American Heritage Definition of Aquaculture

^ Royal Society of Edinburgh (2004) Inquiry into the future of the Scottish fishing industry. 128pp.

^ “ScienceDirect – Aquaculture : Comparative economics of shrimp farming in Asia”. www.sciencedirect.com. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-3T8P28T-F&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=48a8882e385af72d0dbdbacde67a9ebe. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 

External links

FAO Fisheries Information

World Fishing Today, news from fishing industry

Fish database (FishBase)

American Fisheries Society

NOAA Fisheries Service

One Fish

The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform

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Fishing industry

Commercial fishing

Trawling  Pair trawling  Midwater trawling  Bottom trawling  Seining  Longlining  Trolling  Dredging  Fishing vessels  Power block

Fish processing

Fish factory  Factory ship  Fish preservation  Slurry ice  Stockfish  Smoked fish  Gibbing  Fish flake  Salted cod  Unsalted cod  Kippers  more…

Fish products

Seafood  Fish as food  Fish roe  Fish meal  Fish emulsion  Fish hydrolysate  Fish oil  Fish sauce  Shrimp paste  Seafood list  Crustaceans  Molluscs  more…

Fish marketing

Live food fish trade  Shrimp marketing  Chasse-mare  Fishmonger  Fishwife  Worshipful Company of Fishmongers

Fish markets

Billingsgate  Fulton  Maine Avenue  English Market  Scania  Tsukiji  more…

Area fisheries

World fish production  Fishing by country  Fishing banks  Other areas

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Principal commercial fishery species groups

Wild

Large pelagic fish

Mackerel  Salmon  Shark  Swordfish  Tuna (yellowfin, bigeye, bluefin, albacore and skipjack)

Forage fish

Anchovy  Capelin  Herring  Hilsa  Menhaden  Sardines  Shad

Demersal fish

Catfish  Cod (Atlantic, Pacific)  Flatfish (flounder, halibut, plaice, sole and turbot)  Haddock  Mullet  Orange roughy  Pollock  Smelt-whitings  Toothfish

Freshwater fish

Carp  Sturgeon  Tilapia  Trout

Other wild fish

Eel  Whitebait  more…

Crustaceans

Crab  Krill  Lobster  Shrimp  more…

Molluscs

Abalone  Mussels  Octopus  Oysters  Scallops  Squid  more…

Echinoderms

Sea cucumbers  Sea urchin  more…

Farmed

Carp (bighead, common, crucian, grass, silver)  Catfish  Freshwater prawns  Mussels  Oysters  Salmon (Atlantic, salmon trout, coho, chinook)  Tilapia  Shrimp

Commercial fishing  World fish production  Fishing topics  Fisheries glossary

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Fisheries and fishing topic areas

Fisheries

Fisheries science  Wild fisheries  Oceanic habitats  Fish farming  Aquaculture  Fish diversity  Fish diseases  Fisheries management  Fishing quota  Sustainability

Fishing

Fisherman  Artisan fishing  Fishing villages  Fishing vessels  Fishing history

Industry

Commercial fishing  Processing  Products  Seafood  Marketing  Markets

Recreational

Angling  Game fishing  Fly fishing  Catch and release

Techniques

Gathering  Spearfishing  Line fishing  Netting  Trawling  Trapping  Other

Tackle

Hook  Line  Sinker  Rod  Bait  Lures  Artificial flies  Bite alarms

Locations

Fishing by country  Fishing villages  Fishing banks  Fish ponds

List of articles by topic areas  Alphabetical list of articles  Fisheries glossary

Categories: Fishing industry

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